July 3, 1998

Prelude to War For Independence From England


New York, Nov. 1, 1765...A flame of rioting burst out throughout the colonies as citizens in every important city in the land and settlers in most of the small towns paraded through the streets carrying effigies of royalist representatives here and shouting slogans opposing the enforcement of the Stamp Act. Word was received here of Patrick Henry's defiance of King George in the Virginia legislature and it has electrified the colonies.

In essence, Patrick Henry had introduced resolutions in the House of Burgesses in opposition to the Stamp Act. He said "Caesar had his Brutus-Charles the First his Cromwell--and George the Third may profit by their example" (Patrick Henry was referring to King George's advisor, Charles Townshend, initiator of the Stamp Act... The cry of "treason" rose up against him. "IF THIS BE TREASON MAKE THE MOST OF IT," replied Patrick Henry.



Redcoats Clashed with Boston Patriots; 3 killed, 10 wounded!

New York, March 6, 1770... From all over the nation there came reports today of indignation meetings and intensification of political pressure against the Crown as a result of the killing in front of the Town House in Boston, last night, of three patriots and the wounding of 10 others... They stood their ground before the fire of British soldiers garrisoned in that city, thus bringing to a climax the long standing differences between a colonial population desirous of the freedom to determine its own way of life and a motherland adamant, tyrannous, and oppressive.

This bloody clash has revealed how widespread hostility to English government has become. Not since the Stamp Act Congress of 1765 has the nation been so aroused over a British act of aggression.



Cambridge, Mass. April 20, 1775 — A ring of steel is being forged around the City of Boston by a force of Patriots assembled from the surrounding countryside. All roads leading into the city are being blocked in an attempt to make the position of General Gage's forces untenable.



Philadelphia, PA. July 14, 1776... A document proclaiming to the world that the colonies are a nation independent of Great Britain was signed on this date by John Hancock, President, in behalf of the Continental Congress. Officially this transformed the struggle to assert and defend the rights of the Colonist as British subjects, to one to establish THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.



Philadelphia, PA. July 15, 1777... A new force has entered the unequal contest between the Colonists and Britain, France, whose sympathy has been with the Colonists since her loss of Canada. The Marquis de la Fayette has joined the American forces. Accompanying La Fayette to America was Baron De Kalb of Bavaria, who will serve as instructor to the American soldiers.

Other foreign volunteers are the Frenchman Marquis de la Rourie, Pierre Charles L. Enfant, an engineer, and Louis Duportail, Engineer M. Kosciusko and M. Pulaski both Polish.

(After some victories by the American troops such as at Saratoga in 1777, the greater strength of the British army, and the ability of England to completely control the seas and ports and bombarded the sea coast towns. The American forces appeared to be headed for defeat.)



Valley Forge, Pa. Jan. 1, 1778... The small American army wintering here is suffering terribly from cold, poor provisions, and inadequate clothing... This place was chosen as the second winter headquarters by Washington's army after a campaign which ended in the British occupation of Philadelphia by Lord Howe.



Valley Forge, Oct. 4, 1778... General George Washington informed Robert Morris financier of the Revolution... IF THE SPANIARDS WOULD BUT JOIN THEIR FLEETS. To those of France, and commence hostilities, my doubts would all subside."... He then informed the President of the Congress... "The English are now greatly superior to the French at sea in America; and will from every appearance continue so unless Spain interposes..." The truth of the position will entirely depend on naval events... On Sept. 3, 1779 General Washington stated to the President... "I HAVE THE PLEASURE TO INFORM YOU THAT SPAIN HAS AT LENGTH TAKEN A DECISIVE PART. IT IS HOPED THAT THIS FORMIDABLE JUNCTION OF THE HOUSE OF BOURBON WILL NOT FAIL AT ESTABLISHING THE INDEPENDENCE OF AMERICA IN A SHORT TIME!!!


(Postscript: thousands of Mestizos, forefathers of today's Chicanos, Mexicanos, and Latinos, from north ,central, south America,the Caribbean Islands, and officers and men from the Spanish fleet sailed in hundreds of Spanish Galleons and sailed from the Spanish possessions and Spain, to fight in the War for independence. Without the military aid of thousands of troops, horsemen, armaments and millions of dollars worth of Spanish/Mexican gold the war for Independence would have failed.)

We mark the Fourth July as the celebration of the DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE from rule by England. Somewhere in all of the speeches that are given, or among all the parades that are held you would think that today Anglo-European North Americans would remember the thousands of lives of Spanish, Mexican, Latino, and the caribbean people left on the battle fields and high seas to help North America gain its independence from England. Without LA RAZA, THERE WOULD BE NO UNITED STATES OF AMERICA... WE WOULD BE JUST ANOTHER BRITISH COLONY. It is indeed unfortunate that the "real history of America" is never included in the history books provided in our school systems... It's all a matter of written history.

Newspaper History of the United States 1787



PHILADELPHIA, SEPT. 17, 1787... THE PLAN OF NEW NATION WAS PRESENTED TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE TODAY.... The document was sent to the President of Congress by General George Washington. Congress is to submit it to the states for ratification.

(It would take the states nearly two years to ratify the new Constitution of the United States)


Wealthy Charged With Writing New Federal PlAN

New York, Sept. 28, 1787... Opponents of the newly proposed Constitution of the United States today criticized that document, claiming that special economic groups had too strong an influence in its creation.

Liberals, who did not attend the sessions of the Constitutional Convention but who examined the proposed Constitution, deny that the document is created "by the people".... The mass of the people, critics declared, had no voice in determine the new principles of government because of the prevalent suffrage restrictions... The Liberals also claimed that an economic tyranny had been set up placing the interests of the minority above the welfare of the popular majority.

Analysis of the membership of the Constitutional Convention revealed that a majority of the representatives came from cities where property interests were centered, while the interests of small farmers and laboring classes were not represented... Forty of the fifty five delegates to the Convention represented financial interests-interest ranging from those of land speculators, to manufacturing, to shipping concerns.

Proponents of the new Constitution were incline to scoff at this criticism. They asserted that the interests of all citizens were well cared for in the scheme of government.


Crisis Grips Nation as Constitution Debated

Philadelphia, Sept. 29,1787 —Violence broke out here today as an aftermath of the action of the Continental Congress yesterday in proposing to the states a set of principles of government known as the Constitution. State leaders who opposed the plan, on grounds that it was an autocratic rather than democratic instrument , attempted to block action of conservatives who favored calling an immediate state-wide convention to ratify it. They decided to stay away from the afternoon's session of the legislature, and by denying the presence of a quorum, prevent the pro-Constitutionists from passing a measure calling an immediate convention. They believed that the public should have ample time to examine the Confessional-advised principles of government before endorsing or rejecting them. When the representatives favoring the Constitution discovered the plan , they ordered police to seek out the absent members.

Officers broke into the lodgings of the lawmakers, seized them, dragged them through the streets and into the halls of the assembly. Some arrived with torn clothes, bruises suffered in offering resistance, and as one official described it, "faces white with rage."

The legislature then set November 6 as the date of the convention. The public would then only have less than five weeks to examine the new document, discuss it, and elect delegates to the meeting. Tench Coxe expressed regret at the "high-handed"methods of the legislators.


NEW YORK, OCT. 10, 1787 — The people of the United States today were in the grip of the worst crisis since the Revolution as a wave of opposition to the newly proposed Constitution swept the country. The public wrath amounts to a tide which threatens national disunity, leaders admitted. Opponents of the Constitution charge that its principles place the rights of property above human rights; and thousands declared that they will oppose ratification of the document with all their power... Two major political factions have mushroomed: Federalists and anti-Federalists. Federalists, stood for a centralized government rooted in a strong property-rights program and are organizing to plan to fight for adoption. Anti-Federalists, who saw a need for guaranties that will protect the poor, the propertyless, dis-franchised, and the farm and laboring elements. They contend the Constitution defends only the interests of the landholders, merchants, banking and other financial interests. They are planning campaigns against endorsement.

Political observers saw the possibility of a compromise when the ratification conventions meet. Some states may endorse the Constitution if a Bill of Rights is added assuring the freedom of speech, press, religion, right of trial,and other elementary liberties.


DOVER, DELEWARE, DEC. 7, 1787 — Delegates to the state ratification convention in session here the past four days today unanimously voted to adopt the Constitution recently drawn up and proposed to the United States. This action gives Delaware the honor of being the first state in the Union to endorse the new principles of government.



NEW YORK, DEC. 15., 1791... The Bill of Rights went into effect as a part of the law of the land today. The eleventh State, Virginia, ratified a series of amendments to the Constitution, originally passed by Congress on September 25, 1789. And, sent to the states at that time.


(Exerted from the NEWS OF THE NATION, A Newspaper History of the United States, Editor Sylvan Hoffman and C. Hartley Grattan, Associated Editor, 1944)